A  Smart  Composite  Material  is  a  materials  system  composed  of  a  mixture  or

combination  of  two  or  more  micro-  or  macro-constituents  that  differ  in  form  and  chemical

composition  and  which  are  essentially  insoluble  in  each  other.  Composites  involve  two  or

more  component  materials  that  are  generally  combined  in  an  attempt  to  improve  material

properties  such  as  stiffness,  strength,  toughness,  etc.;  the  resulting  properties  are  largely

dependent on the distribution, relative amounts and geometries of the constituents. Polymer

matrix  composites  generally  combine  high-strength,  high-stiffness  fibers  (graphite,  kevlar,

etc.)  with  low-density  matrix  materials  (epoxy,  polyvinyl,  etc.)  to  produce  strong  &  stiff

materials  that  are  lightweight.  Laminates  are  generally  built  up  from  multiple  layers  of

lamina;  the  fibers  within  each  lamina  are  generally  parallel,  but  laminates  usually  contain

lamina  with  their  fibers  oriented  in  various  directions.  Each  lamina  is  an  anisotropic  layer

with properties varying as a function of fiber angle. Loading along the fibers (longitudinal) is

modeled  as  Isostrain  while  loading  perpendicular  to  the  fibers  (transverse)  is  modeled  as

Isostress;  these  two  directions  generally  represent  the  extremes  in  material  behavior.  Fiber

and  matrix  material  property  data  can  be  used  to  predict/approximate  the  properties  of

laminated composites using the Rule of Mixtures. In this paper, the various types composites

and  their  properties,  manufacturing  process,  the  recent  development  of  multi  functional

composites have been analyzed and reported for suitable application   

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Thu, 21/04/2011 - 01:55