Selection of minimal tripping times for distance protection using fault trees with time dependencies

Correct coordination between protection relays is an essential requirement to maintain stability and integrity of electrical power systems. Time settings of protection relays have to be adapted to time characteristics of electrical power systems and time settings of other protections. In the paper, fault trees with time dependencies (FTTD) are used for selecting time delay settings of remote back-up distance protections. In FTTD, events and gates are characterized by time parameters, which are derived from time characteristics of protection devices and the inherent delays of protection equipment. Two case studies are presented. First, the coordination of protections for the simple transmission line composed of two identical sections is studied. Next, the transmission line that contains two sections of different lengths and transformer between them is analyzed. In both cases, formulae for time delays of protections are derived. According to calculations executed for the first case, our method gives time delays that often are significantly smaller than values suggested by generally recommended and accepted rules.

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