Productivity can be defined as the ratio of output produced to the input resources
utilized in the production. The input resources in any productive system are one among
these four: Land, Man, Material and Machine and the output is the amount produced.

Productivity can be of two different types Total Productivity which is the ratio of the
aggregate output to aggregate input and Partial Productivity which is the ratio of the
aggregate output to any single input. The basic objectives behind productivity
measurement are:

• To study performance of a system over time
• To attain a relative comparison of different system for a given level
• To compare the actual productivity of a system with its planned productivity
The different approaches to productivity measurement at the enterprise level are:-
• Total productivity
• Total factor productivity
• Return on investment

There are basically two major factors that are responsible for productivity improvement.
They are:-

• Factors related to product design
o Standardization of components
o Quality standards
o Provision for use of high production machineries wherever possible

• Factors related to the process design

o Specifications of the operating conditions
o Interactions among men and machines
o Working Methods of the operatives

The productivity can be improved by reducing either work content or ineffective time.

Basic Work Content is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one
unit of output and

Total Work Content = Basic Work Content + Excess Time

Excess Time is the total of the time due to defects in design or specification of the product
and due to inefficient methods of manufacture or operations.

Ineffective Time is the time for which the worker or machine or both are idle due to
shortcomings of the management or the worker.

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Thu, 07/04/2011 - 00:04