Projects

Electronic Bus Ticketing

E-Ticketing 1
ABSTRACT
Electronic Ticket Machine
Kerala State Road Transport Corporation is introducing ticket machines on buses. The ticket machines
would end the use of the hefty 1.5-kg ticket racks carried by KSRTC conductors. It would also end the
practice of tearing out tickets and marking fare stages.
Instead, the KSRTC conductor would just have to key in the details about the fare stage and
the ticket machine would print out the ticket. The machine weighs only 800 grams and is convenient to
carry. The parameters are almost like that of a railway ticket, the only difference being that the machine
is portable.
The machine can print out 2,300 tickets, including the journey report in order to facilitate
inspection by the corporation's checking inspectors. Each machine costs Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 12,000. The
KSRTC has budgeted Rs. 2 cores for this innovative step which would have the support of the
Information Technology Department. In old days the KSRTC was spending Rs. 85 lakhs on printing
tickets. The ticket machines would help prevent loss on account of malpractice. It would also help in
providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to the boarding of passengers from
fare stages and important points. This would help the corporation prepare and organize its schedules
more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand. Besides, it would provide data on concessions given to
various sections. Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine could be fed into the
computer. More over the depots of the corporation would be fully computerized so we want to add
some other modules in our domain for depot’s verification.
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1. OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Electronic Bus Ticketing
The ticket machines would end the use of the hefty 1.5-kg ticket racks carried by
conductors. It would also end the practice of tearing out tickets and marking fare stages. The Conductor
would just have to key in the details about the fare stage and the ticket machine would print out the
ticket. The machine weighs only 800 grams and is convenient to carry. The parameters are almost like
that of a railway ticket, the only difference being that the machine is portable. The machine can print
out 2,300 tickets, including the journey report in order to facilitate inspection by the corporation's
checking inspectors. The ticket machines would help prevent loss on account of malpractice. It would
also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to the boarding of
passengers from fare stages and important points. This would help the corporation prepare and organize
its schedules more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand. Besides, it would provide data on
concessions given to various sections. Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine
could be fed into the computer. More over the depots of the corporation would be fully computerized
so we want to add some other modules in our domain for depot’s verification.
This project is modularized as the following:
 Management of Route
 Trip Details
 Bus Details
 Bus Stops
 Bus Ticketing
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1. Management of Routes
This module include information about how we can Manage the routes for a
particular bus services so In the case of Route management module we must know the details about
route number, number of stops ,fare stages and running time of the particular bus more over we want
to manipulate and stored these information successfully.
2. Trip information
Each journey is identified as a trip. Each ticket must contain the trip no so that
calculation of passenger can be done easily. Here in this section we want to know start time and route
no of the bus this information can be manipulate and stored successfully.
3. Bus Detail
In this module all bus details are stored and manipulated, in bus detail module
contains minimum charge, type, depot, fare increment, bus number, and passenger’s states (child or
adult) are manipulate and stored.
4. Bus Stops
Bus Stops module includes information about what are the main bus stops of a particular
bus. This module connected to the route of the bus and it is used to store stop number, stop name and
fare stages and Route number
5. Bus Ticketing
Ticketing is the most important module in this Project which uses all the tables together and
calculates fare for the passengers. Venting the tickets is done using the route number, bus type,
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beginning stop, end stop, ticket number, persons(Adult/child)rate, date and time also we want to
print the all these information. In order to do the calculation data has to be pulled out from stops,
bus, trip and route. Number of passengers & the states are entered by the Venter and to produce the
tickets.
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2. SYSTEM STUDY AND ANALYSIS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
System analysis is a process of gathering and interpreting facts,
diagnosing problems and the information to recommend improvements on the system. It
is a problem solving activity that requires intensive communication between the system
users and system developers. System analysis or study is an important phase of any
system development process. The system is studied to the minutest detail and analyzed.
The system analyst plays the role of the interrogator and dwells deep into the working of
the present system. The system is viewed as a whole and the input to the system are
identified. The outputs from the organizations are traced to the various
processes. System analysis is concerned with becoming aware of the problem,
identifying the relevant and decisional variables, analyzing and synthesizing the various
factors and determining an optimal or at least a satisfactory solution or program of
action.
A detailed study of the process must be made by various techniques like interviews,
questionnaires etc. The data collected by these sources must be scrutinized to arrive to a
conclusion. The conclusion is an understanding of how the system functions. This
system is called the existing system. Now the existing system is subjected to close study
and problem areas are identified. The designer now functions as a problem solver and
tries to sort out the difficulties that the enterprise faces. The solutions are given as
proposals. The proposal is then weighed with the existing system analytically and the
best one is selected. The proposal is presented to the user for an endorsement by the
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user. The proposal is reviewed on user request and suitable changes are made. This is
loop that ends as soon as the user is satisfied with proposal.
Preliminary study is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, using the
information for further studies on the system. Preliminary study is problem solving
activity that requires intensive communication between the system users and system
developers. It does various feasibility studies. In these studies a rough figure of the
system activities can be obtained, from which the decision about the strategies to be
followed for effective system study and analysis can be taken.
Here in the project E-Ticketing, a detailed study of existing system is carried along
with all the steps in system analysis. An idea for creating a better project was carried
and the next steps were followed.
2.2 FEASIBILITY STUDY
An important outcome of the preliminary investigation is the determination that
the system requested is feasible. Feasibility study is carried out to select the best system
that meets the performance requirements.
Feasibility study is both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of the
project at the earliest possible time. It involves preliminary investigation of the project
and examines whether the designed system will be useful to the organization. Months or
years of effort, thousand for millions of money and untold professional embarrassment
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can be averted if an in-conceived system is recognized early in the definition phase.
The different types of feasibility are: Technical feasibility, Operational
feasibility, Economical feasibility.
2.2.1 Technical feasibility
Technical Feasibility deals with the hardware as well as software requirements.
Technology is not a constraint to type system development. We have to find out whether
the necessary technology, the proposed equipments have the capacity to hold the data,
which is used in the project, should be checked to carryout this technical feasibility.
The technical feasibility issues usually raised during the feasibility stage of
investigation includes these
 This software is running in windows 2000 Operating System, which can be easily
installed.
 The hardware required is Pentium based server.
 The system can be expanded.
2.2.2 Behavioral Feasibility
This feasibility test asks if the system will work when it is developed and
installed.
Operational feasibility in this project:
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 The proposed system offers greater level of user-friendliness.
 The proposed system produces best results and gives high performance. It can be
implemented easily .So this project is operationally feasible.
2.2.3 Economical feasibility
Economical Feasibility deals about the economical impact faced by the
organization to implement a new system. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the
costs. The cost of conducting a full system, including software and hardware cost for the
class of application being considered should be evaluated. Economic Feasibility in this
project:
 The cost to conduct a full system investigation is possible.
 There is no additional manpower requirement.
 There is no additional cost involved in maintaining the proposed system.
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2.4 EXISTING SYSTEM
Existing system refers to the system that is being followed till now. The existing system
requires more computational time, more manual calculations, and the complexity involved in Selection
of features is high. The other disadvantages are lack of security of data, Deficiency of Data accuracy,
Time consuming etc. To avoid all these limitations and make the working more accurately the system
needs to be computerized. Here in the Electronic bus ticketing, a detailed study of existing system is
carried along with all the steps in system analysis.
2.4.1 Draw backs of existing system.
Here in the Electronic bus ticketing, a detailed study of existing system is carried along with all
the steps in system analysis. An idea for creating a better project was carried and the next steps were
followed.
 Lack of security of data.
 More man power.
 Time consuming.
 Consumes large volume of pare work.
 Needs manual calculations.
 No direct role for the higher officials.
 Damage of machines due to lack of attention.
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To avoid all these limitations and make the working more accurately the system needs to be
computerized.
2.5 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The aim of proposed system is to develop a system of improved facilities. The
proposed system can overcome all the limitations of the existing system. The system provides proper
security and reduces the manual work. The existing system has several disadvantages and many more
difficulties to work well. The proposed system tries to eliminate or reduce these difficulties up to some
extent. The proposed system will help the user to reduce the workload and mental conflict. The
proposed system helps the user to work user friendly and he can easily do his jobs without time
lagging.
2.5.1 Advantages of Proposed System
The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very
low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations. It has got following
features
 Ensure data accuracy.
 Minimize manual data entry.
 Minimum time needed for the various processing
 Greater efficiency
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 Better Service
 Minimum time required
 The ticket machines would help prevent loss on account of malpractice
 It would also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with
regard to boarding of passengers from fare stages and important points
 This would help the corporation prepare and organize its schedules more efficiently on
the basis of traffic demand.
 It would provide data on concessions given to various sections.
 Another additional feature is that the data in the ticket machine could be fed into the
computer.
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3. SYSTEM DESIGN
3.1 INTRODUCTION
System Design is the most creative and challenging phase in the system life
cycle. Design is the first step into the development phase for any engineered product
or system. Design is a creative process. A good design is the key to effective system.
System design is a solution how to approach the creation of a new system. System
design transforms a logic representation of what is required to do into the physical
specification. The specification is converted into physical reality during development.
3.2 LOGICAL DESIGN
The logical flow of a system and define the boundaries of a system. It includes the
following steps:
 Reviews the current physical system – its data flows, file content, volumes,
frequencies etc.
 Prepares output specifications – that is, determines the format, content and Frequency of
reports.
 Prepares input specifications – format, content and most of the input functions.
 Prepares edit, security and control specifications.
 Specifies the implementation plan.
 Prepares a logical design walk through of the information flow, output, input, controls
and implementation plan.
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 Reviews benefits, costs, target dates and system constraints.
3.3 PHYSICAL DESIGN
Physical system produces the working systems by define the design specifications
that tell the programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. It includes the
following steps.
 Design the physical system.
 Specify input and output media.
 Design the database and specify backup procedures.
 Design physical information flow through the system and a physical design Walk
through.
 Plan system implementation.
 Prepare a conversion schedule and target date.
 Determine training procedures, courses and timetable.
 Devise a test and implementation plan and specify any new hardware/software.
 Update benefits , costs , conversion date and system constraints
Design/Specification activities
 Concept formulation.
 Problem understanding.
 High level requirements proposals.
 Feasibility study.
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 Requirements engineering.
 Architectural design.
3.4 INPUT DESIGN
Input Design deals with what data should be given as input, how the data
should be arranged or code, the dialog to guide the operating personnel in providing
input, methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur.
Input Design is the process of converting a user-oriented description of the input into a
computer-based system. This design is important to avoid errors in the data input
process and show the correct direction to the management for getting correct
information from the computerized system. It is achieved by creating user-friendly
screens for the data entry to handle large volume of data. The goal of designing input is
to make data entry easier and to be free from errors. The data entry screen is designed in
such a way that all the data manipulates can be performed. It also provides record
viewing facilities.
When the data is entered it will check for its validity. Data can be entered with the help
of screens. Appropriate messages are provided as when needed so that the user will not
be in maize of instant. Thus the objective of input design is to create an input layout that
is easy to follow.
In this project, the input design consists of a log in screen, tab for compression/
decompression, source and destination browsing button, a menu list for selecting the
algorithm, Compress/Decompress option, compress/decompress button.
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3.5 OUTPUT DESIGN
A quality output is one, which meets the requirements of the end user and presents the
information clearly. The objective of output design is to convey information about past
activities, current status or projections of the future, signal important events,
opportunities, problems, or warnings, trigger an action, confirm an action etc. Efficient,
intelligible output design should improve the system’s relationship with the user and
helps in decisions making. In output design the emphasis is on displaying the output on
a CRT screen in a predefined format. The primary consideration in design of output is
the information requirement and objectives of the end users. The major formation of the
output is to convey the information and so its layout and design need a careful
consideration.
There is an output display screen for showing the compressed/ decompressed file
or folder details (Original file size, Compressed/Decompressed file size, distinct
characters)
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3.7 DATABASE DESIGN
A database is an organized mechanism that has the capability of storing information
through which a user can retrieve stored information in an effective and efficient
manner. The data is the purpose of any database and must be protected.
The database design is a two level process. In the first step, user requirements are
gathered together and a database is designed which will meet these requirements as
clearly as possible. This step is called Information Level Design and it is taken
independent of any individual Database Management System (DBMS).
In the second step, this Information level design is transferred into a design for the
specific DBMS that will be used to implement the system in question. This step is called
Physical Level Design, concerned with the characteristics of the specific DBMS that
will be used. A database design runs parallel with the system design. The organization
of the data in the database is aimed to achieve the following two major objectives.
 Data Integrity
 Data independence
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4.2 TESTING
Testing is a process of executing a program with the interest of finding an error. A good
test is one that has high probability of finding the yet undiscovered error. Testing should
systematically uncover different classes of errors in a minimum amount of time with a
minimum amount of efforts. Two classes of inputs are provided to test the process
1. A software configuration that includes a software requirement specification, a design
specification and source code.
2. A software configuration that includes a test plan and procedure, any testing tool and
test cases and their expected results.
Testing is divided into several distinct operations:
1. Unit Testing
Unit test comprises of a set tests performed by an individual program prior to the
integration of the unit into large system. A program unit is usually the smallest free
functioning part of the whole system. Module unit testing should be as exhaustive as
possible to ensure that each representation handled by each module has been tested. All
the units that makeup the system must be tested independently to ensure that they work
as required.
During unit testing some errors were raised and all of them were rectified and
handled well. The result was quiet satisfactory and it worked well.
2. Integration Testing
Integration testing is a system technique for constructing the program structure
while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing.
The objective is to take unit tested modules and build a program structure that has been
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dictated by design. Bottom-up integration is the traditional strategy used to integrate the
components of a software system into functioning whole. Bottom-up integration consists
of unit test followed by testing of the entire system. A sub-system consists of several
modules that communicated with other defined interface.
The system was done the integration testing. All the modules were tested for
their compatibility with other modules .They test was almost successful. All the
modules coexisted very well, with almost no bugs. All the modules were encapsulated
very well so as to not hamper the execution of other modules.
3. Validation Testing
After validation testing, software is completely assembled as a package,
interfacing errors that have been uncovered and corrected and the final series of
software test; the validation test begins. Steps taken during software design and testing
can greatly improve the probability of successful integration in the larger system.
System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully
exercise the compute –based system.
4. Recovery Testing
It is a system that forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verifies that
the recovery is properly performed.
5. Security Testing
It attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system will in fact
protect it from improper penetration. The system’s security must of course be tested
from in vulnerability form frontal attack.
6. Stress Testing
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Stress tools are designed to confront programs with abnormal situations. Stress
testing executes a system in a manner that demands resources in abnormal quantity and
volume.
7. Black Box Testing
Black box testing is done to find out the following information as shown in
below:
1. Incorrect or missing functions.
2. Interface errors.
3. Errors or database access.
4. Performance error.
5. Termination error.
The mentioned testing is carried out successfully for this application according
to the user’s requirement specification.
8. Test Data Output
After preparing test data, the system under study is tested using the test data.
While testing the system using test data, errors are again uncovered and corrected by
using above testing and corrections are also noted for future use.
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6. CONCLUSION & FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
The project E-Ticketing is completed, satisfying the required design specifications. The system
provides a user-friendly interface. The software is developed with modular approach. All modules in
the system have been tested with valid data and invalid data and everything work successfully. Thus
the system has fulfilled all the objectives identified and is able to replace the existing system. The
constraints are met and overcome successfully. The system is designed as like it was decided in the
design phase. This software has a user-friendly screen that enables the user to use without any
inconvenience. The ticket machines would end the use of the hefty 1.5-kg ticket racks carried by
conductors. Instead, the conductor would just have to key in the details about the fare stage and the
ticket machine would print out the ticket. The machine weighs only 800 grams and is convenient to
carry. The parameters are almost like that of a railway ticket, the only difference being that the machine
is portable. It would also help in providing adequate data to the corporation, particularly with regard to
the boarding of passengers from fare stages and important points. This would help the corporation
prepare and organize its schedules more efficiently on the basis of traffic demand. Besides, it would
provide data on concessions given to various sections. Another additional feature is that the data in the
ticket machine could be fed into the computer.
The application has been tested with live data and has provided a successful result.
Hence the software has proved to work efficiently.



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