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Distributed Explicit Rate Schemes in Multi-Input–Multi-Output Network Systems

Abstract

With the ever-increasing wireless/wired data applications recently, considerable efforts have focused on the design of distributed explicit rate flow control schemes for multi-inputmulti- output service. This paper describes two novel wireless/wired multipoint-to-multipoint multicast flow control schemes, which are based on the distributed self-tuning proportional integrative plus derivative (SPID) controller and distributed self-tuning proportional plus integrative (SPI) controller, respectively. The control parameters can be designed to ensure the stability of the control loop in terms of source rate.

The distributed explicit rate SPID and SPI controllers are located at the wireless/wired multipoint to- multipoint multicast source to regulate the transmission rate. We further analyze the theoretical aspects of the proposed algorithm, and showhowthe control mechanism can be used to design a controller to support wireless/wired multipoint-to-multipoint multicast Transmissions. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of system stability, fast response, low packet loss, and high scalability, and the results also showSPID scheme has better performance than SPI scheme, however, SPID scheme requires more computing time and CPU resource.

Algorithm Used:

1. Distributed ER allocation algorithm.

In this algorithm, flow controllers regulate the source rate at a multicast tree, which accounts for the buffer occupancies of all destination nodes. The proposed control scheme uses a distributed self-tuning proportional integrative plus derivative (SPID) controller or uses a distributed self-tuning proportional plus integrative (SPI) controller. The control parameters can be designed to ensure the stability of the control loop in terms of source rate.We further show how the control mechanism can be used to design a controller to support multipoint-to-multipoint multicast transmission based on ER feedback. System stability criterion is derived in the presence of destination nodes with heterogeneous RTTs.

2. SPID and SPI Algorithms

Each branch point of the multicast tree replicates each data packet and FCP from its upstream node to all its downstream branches. The downstream nodes return their congestion information via BCPs to the parents through the backward direction once they receive FCPs. Assume that congestion never happens at the router connected with the sources; hence, these two can be consolidated into one node, which is true in most cases in real networks.

Proposed System:

We Proposed Especially with ever-increasing multicast data applications, wireless and wired multicast (multipoint-to-multipoint) transmission has considerable effect on many applications such as teleconferencing and information dissemination services. Multicast improves the efficiency of multipoint data distribution from multiple senders to a set of receivers . Unfortunately, the widely used multicast transport protocols, which are layered on top of IP multicast, can cause congestion or even congestion collapse if adequate flow control is not provided. Flow control thus plays an important role in the traffic management of multicast communications.

Several multicast flow approaches have been proposed recently. One class of them adopts a simple hop-by-hop feedback mechanism, in which the feedback, i.e., backward control packets (BCPs), from downstream nodes are initially gathered at branch points, and then are transmitted upward by a single hop upon receipt of a forward control packet (FCP). This kind of manipulation can be carried out on the basis of the tree structure in a multicast transmission. These schemes then introduce another problem of slow transient response due to the feedback from “long” paths. Such delayed congestion feedback can cause excessive queue buildup/packet loss at bottleneck links.

Merit of proposed system:

1. Data transfer rate is adjusted at the source

2. Group node makes sure that the buffer occupancy stabilizes and never overflows the buffer capacity.

3. These are active and effective methods to adjust the sending rates, and reduce the packets loss.

4. a lot of approaches use queue schemes to solve congestion control problems
5.The main proposed scheme in terms of system stability and fast response to the buffer occupancy, as well as controlled sending rates, low packet loss, and high scalability.

Modules:

1. Multicast Network Configuration Module:

The multicast network is a connection-oriented one, which is composed of sources and destination nodes. multicast connection and every sampling period, the multicast source issues and transmits a FCP to the downstream nodes (the branch node and destination nodes), and a BCP is constructed by each downstream node and sent back to the source. After the multicast source receives the BCPs from the downstream nodes, it will take appropriate action to adjust its transmitting rates of multicast traffic based on the computed value of the SPID controller. After receiving the data packets coming from the branch point, the receivers construct BCPs and send them back to the branch point.

2. Multirate–multicast control (MR-MCC) tree Module:

we process the nodes that have small differences of time delay and sending rate together. Then we unify the time delay and sending rate. Since the situation of every node in each group (about 20 receivers) is similar, we only choose one node from each group as a representative. We assume that the link delay is dominant compared to the other delays, such as processing delays and queuing delay. the multicast source S1 sends data packets at 0 ms and the multicast source S2 starts to send data packets at 1000 ms in the simulation time; then the joining of S2 enhances the network dynamic behavior, and also demonstrates the efficiency of the SPID and SPI schemes. In simulation 2 (see Fig), there are more receivers and longer delay than in model 1, and we set appropriate parameters to enable system stability.

3. SPID and SPI controllers Module:

The control parameters of the SPID and SPI controllers can be designed to ensure the stability of the control loop in terms of buffer occupancy and adjust automatically, depending on the network load. This subsequently means that the schemes provide the least packet loss in steady state. Relevant pseudo codes for implementation have been developed, and the paper shows how the two controllers could be designed to adjust the rates of data service. Simulations have been carried out with wireless and wired multipoint-to-multipoint multicast models.

4. Forward control packet (FCP) Module:

Forward control packet (FCP). This kind of manipulation can be carried out on the basis of the tree structure in a multicast transmission. The main merit of these methods lies in the simplicity of the hop-by-hop mechanism. First-in first-out (FIFO) queue to multiplex all flows traveling through the outgoing link. Assume that congestion never happens at the router connected with the sources; hence, these two can be consolidated into one node, which is true in most cases in real networks.

H/W System Configuration
Processor - Pentium –III

Speed - 1.1 Ghz
RAM - 256 MB(min)
Hard Disk - 20 GB
Floppy Drive - 1.44 MB
Key Board - Standard Windows Keyboard
Mouse - Two or Three Button Mouse
Monitor - SVGA

Software Requirements:-

Language : Java RMI, SWING,JFC

Development Tool : My Eclipse 3.0

O/S :WIN2000/XP/2007/Vista



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