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ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE

      Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law scientific discovery and toys. However, many AI applications are not perceived as AI: "A lot of cutting edge AI has filtered into general applications, often without being called AI because once something  useful enough and common enough it's not labeled AI anymore.Many thousands of AI applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry.” In the late 90s and early 21st century, AI technology became widely used as elements of larger system but the field is rarely credited for these successes.

         AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and are no longer considered a part of AI.        Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic in the management of their workforces, for example BT group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20000 engineers.Mathematical models pose computational difficulty on hardware when applied to real-life situations whereas pure quantitative optimization models and qualitative reasoning of AI methods entail human intelligence. The feasibility of combining OR and AI systems is suggested for optimal solutions to actual and major traffic problems.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

          Artificial Intelligence currently encompasses a huge variety of subfields, from general-purpose areas such as perception and logical reasoning, to specific tasks such as playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, and diagnosing diseases. Often, scientists in other fields move gradually into artificial intelligence, where they find the tools and vocabulary to systematize and automate the intellectual tasks on which they have been working all their lives. Similarly, workers in AI can choose to apply their methods to any area of human intellectual endeavor. In this sense, it is truly a universal field. Many felt that the new ``Electronic Super-Brains'' had unlimited potential for intelligence. ``Faster Than Einstein'' was a typical headline. But as well as providing a vehicle for creating artificially intelligent entities, the computer provides a tool for testing theories of intelligence, and many theories failed to withstand the test--a case of ``out of the armchair, into the fire.'' AI has turned out to be more difficult than many at first imagined and modern ideas are much richer, more subtle, and more interesting as a result.

          Artificial Intelligence addresses one of the ultimate puzzles. How is it possible for a slow, tiny brain{brain}, whether biological or electronic, to perceive, understand, predict, and manipulate a world.,  unlike the search for faster-than-light travel or an antigravity device, the researcher in AI has solid evidence that the quest is possible. All the researcher has to do is look in the mirror to see an example of an intelligent system. AI is one of the newest disciplines. It was formally initiated in 1956, when the name was coined, although at that point work had been under way for about five years. Along with modern genetics, it is regularly cited as the ``field I would most like to be in'' by scientists in other disciplines. A student in physics might reasonably feel that all the good ideas have already been taken by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and the rest, and that it takes many years of study before one can contribute new ideas. AI, on the other hand, still has openings for a full-time Einstein.

 



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Sun, 19/12/2010 - 12:48

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