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Sample aptitude questions on number systems

How many number of times will the digit ‘7′ be written when listing the integers from 1 to 1000?

Sol:
7 does not occur in 1000. So we have to count the number of times it appears between 1 and 999. Any number between 1 and 999 can be expressed in the form of xyz where 0 < x, y, z < 9.

1. The numbers in which 7 occurs only once. e.g 7, 17, 78, 217, 743 etc. This means that 7 is one of the digits and the remaining two digits will be any of the other 9 digits (i.e 0 to 9 with the exception of 7). You have 1*9*9 = 81 such numbers. However, 7 could appear as the first or the second or the third digit. Therefore, there will be 3*81 = 243 numbers (1-digit, 2-digits and 3- digits) in which 7 will appear only once. In each of these numbers, 7 is written once. Therefore, 243 times.

2. The numbers in which 7 will appear twice. e.g 772 or 377 or 747 or 77 In these numbers, one of the digits is not 7 and it can be any of the 9 digits ( 0 to 9 with the exception of 7). There will be 9 such numbers. However, this digit which is not 7 can appear in the first or second or the third place. So there are 3 * 9 = 27 such numbers. In each of these 27 numbers, the digit 7 is written twice. Therefore, 7 is written 54 times.

3. The number in which 7 appears thrice - 777 - 1 number. 7 is written thrice in it. Therefore, the total number of times the digit 7 is written between 1 and 999 is 243 + 54 + 3 = 300
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A three digit number consists of 9,5 and one more number . When these digits are reversed and then subtracted from the original number the answer yielded will be consisting of the same digits arranged yet in a different order. What is the other digit?

Ans : 4

Sol. Let the digit unknown be n.

The given number is then 900+50+n=950+n.
When reversed the new number is 100n+50+9=59+100n.
Subtracting these two numbers we get 891-99n.
The digit can be arranged in 3 ways or 6 ways.
We have already investigated 2 of these ways.
We can now try one of the remaining 4 ways. One of these is n 95

100n+90+5=891-99n
or 199n =796
so, n=4
the unknown digit is 4.
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On sports day,if 30 children were made to stand in a column,16 columns could be formed. If 24 children were made to stand in a column, how many columns could be formed?

Ans. 20

Sol:

Total number of children=30*16=480
Number of columns of 24 children each =480/24=20.
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